agreed to waive large amounts of income tax from 6000 workers in newspaper
printing industry who had been defrauding IR.
for JR made by association of taxpayers who alleged IR had failed in duty to
administer tax laws fairly as between different classes of taxpayers.
of Lords held:
treat standing as preliminary issue for determination independently of merits
Wilberforce stated this may be appropriate in simple cases where obvious at
earliest stage that applicant has no interest at all, but in others must look
introduced second stage in new procedure –
has to show strong enough case on merits, judged in relation to his own concern
made that law as to standing is now same for all remedies under Ord 53.
clear answer given.
clearly supported uniform test; Wilberforce clearly did not.
three Lords less forthright.
support for uniform test but with rider that old authorities should not be
Some of former rules may still be valid.]
According to Lord Diplock, test sufficiently wide to allow an actio popularis
(citizen’s action) in suitable cases.
be grave lacuna in law if pressure group or even single public-spirited
individual were prevented by outdated technical rules of locus standi from
bringing matter to attention of court to vindicate rule of law.
of case, applicants had failed to show IR had breached duty –
managerial powers allowed them to make such arrangements.
if it had been shown that IR yielded to improper pressure, or committed breach of
duty of sufficient gravity, applicants might have succeeded.