advertising contracts with firm, Easipower.
asked their bank to obtain references from E’s bankers, defendants.
contract, but must have known references would be passed on.
expenditure on E’s account.
negligently giving favourable references.
disclaimer, but that in appropriate circumstances duty of care could arise.
itself sufficient because of potentially far-reaching effect of spoken (or
written) word – therefore ‘special relationship’ required.
relied on defendant’s skill and judgement or his ability to make careful
or ought reasonably to have known, that plaintiff was relying on him, and
in the circumstances for the plaintiff to rely on the defendant
from ‘reasonable reliance’
results from ‘assumption of responsibility’.
would be where there is assumption of responsibility in circumstances in which,
but for absence of consideration, there would be a contract.
responsibility more than reasonable reliance, eg Henderson.